By Enrico Perla, Massimiliano Oldani
The variety of defense countermeasures opposed to user-land exploitation is at the upward push. due to this, kernel exploitation is changing into even more renowned between take advantage of writers and attackers. fiddling with the center of the working process could be a risky online game: This ebook covers the theoretical ideas and techniques had to enhance trustworthy and powerful kernel-level exploits and applies them to diversified working structures (Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X, and Windows). Kernel exploits require either artwork and technological know-how to accomplish. each OS has its quirks and so each take advantage of needs to be molded to totally make the most its objective. This booklet discusses the preferred OS families-UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, and Windows-and how one can achieve entire keep an eye on over them. ideas and strategies are offered categorically in order that even if a in particular unique make the most has been patched, the foundational details that you've got learn can help you to write down a more moderen, larger assault or a extra concrete layout and protective structure.
* Covers more than a few working procedure households - UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, Windows
* info universal eventualities corresponding to conventional reminiscence corruption (stack overflow, heap overflow, etc.) concerns, logical insects and race conditions
* gives you the reader from user-land exploitation to the area of kernel-land (OS) exploits/attacks, with a specific specialize in the stairs that result in the production of winning recommendations, so one can provide to the reader anything greater than only a set of tricks
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Extra info for A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core
For instance, consider a pointer declared as a local variable, as shown in the following code. /p Pointer value: 0x41414141 macosxbox$ 23 24 CHAPTER 2 A Taxonomy of Kernel Vulnerabilities As you can see, the pointer allocated inside ptr un initialized() has, as we predicted, the value the previous function left on the stack. A range of memory that has some leftover data is usually referred to as dead memory (or a dead stack). Granted, we crafted that example, and you might think such a thing is unlikely to happen.
In this case, as well as in the case of in-cache metadata information, the free space available for chunks might not be divisible by the chunk size. This “empty” space is used, in some implementations, to color the cache, making the objects in different pages start at different offsets and, thus, end on different hardware cache lines (again improving overall performance). ). The likely outcome of such an overflow is to overwrite either the contents of the chunk following the overflowed chunk, or some cache-related metadata (if present), or some random kernel memory (if the overflow is big enough to span past the boundary of the page the chunks reside in, or if the chunk is at the end of the cache page).
The first case is typical on symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems. Since there is more than one CPU (core), multiple different kernel paths can be executing at the same time. The second case is the only possible situation for race conditions on uniprocessor (UP) systems. The first task needs to be interrupted somehow for the second one to run. Nowadays, this is not a remote possibility: a lot of the parts of modern kernels can be preempted, which means they can be scheduled off the CPU in favor of some other process.