By Charles Hutton
A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionar is a special sourcebook for historians of arithmetic, astronomy and philosophy. it truly is Charles Hutton's such a lot famous paintings and largely thought of to be the successor to John Harris's nice Lexicon Technicum, or an common English Dictionary of the humanities and Sciences (1704). initially released in volumes in 1795-6, this expansive clinical encyclopedia includes millions of motives of phrases and a wealth of biographical details at the significant British and ecu scientists and philosophers. one of the biographical entries, which come with exact bibliographical descriptions, are Berkeley, Huygens, Boyle, Bacon, Gassendi, Flamsteed, Hooke, Brahe, Newton, Galileo and Halley. the numerous clinical phrases are concisely defined and illuminated by way of examples and illustrations.
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Extra resources for A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary: Containing an Explanation of the Terms, and an Account of the Several Subjects, comprized under the heads ( Writings of the most Eminent Authors, etc)
Each man. (1937a: 3, BPHLHU) Proper nouns denote only one object and this is a very convenient feature, for ‘‘manipulating them is almost like manipulating their denotations’’ (1937a: 4). It is this feature of proper nouns that leads us unconsciously, the story continues, ‘‘to force all nouns into the pattern of proper nouns’’. e. by inventing the class of cats or the property feline to serve as denotation for c-a-t. Men then come to Quine and Tarski on Nominalism 27 believe in the class (or the property) just as much as in the concrete cats and thus these creations have proved to be Frankenstein monsters—have taken subsequent developments into their own hands.
Since there are several nouns that denote the same class of objects, Quine goes on to suggest that to 28 Paolo Mancosu make the class unique we pick a speciﬁc noun (the shortest noun of the kind and among the shortest the ﬁrst in the lexicographic ordering). Thus, we now have the doctrine that universals are ‘mere names’. However, there are two difﬁculties raised against the suggestion. The ﬁrst is related to Grelling’s paradox. A noun is said to be heterological if it doesn’t denote itself. Is ‘heterological’ heterological or not?
But that in itself could be seen as a positive gain. In comparison to the Carnapian rejection of the problem of universals, Quine argued that ‘nominalism’ is a meaningful philosophical position. Much of the lecture itself goes over a number of topics with which we are by now familiar. ’’ Faced with the objection that mathematics quantiﬁes over abstract objects, Quine proposes a way out for the nominalist: Now surely classical math. ; so it follows that the thesis of nominalism is false. What has the nominalist to say to this?