By Chai Lee Goi
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Extra resources for A Review of Marketing Mix: 4Ps or More?
Choice of approach is dictated partly by industry conditions (a volatile industry suggests the adaptive approach, a stable industry allows for the fully planned approach) and partly by the predilections of the corporate founders. Setting objectives is usually the first stage in planning. There are only three basic marketing objectives (MacKay, 1972). qxp 48 1/13/2009 6:40 PM Page 48 According to McDonald (1984), we should move from the general to the particular, from the broad to the narrow, and from the long-term to the short-term.
2003) ‘Dyadic adaptation in business-to-business markets’, European Journal of Marketing, 37 (11): 1636–45. C. (1988) Repeat Buying: Facts, Theory and Applications. London: Charles Griffin. Gupta, Sunil, Lehmann, Donald R. and Stuart, Jennifer Ames (2004) ‘Valuing customers’, Journal of Marketing Research, 41 (1): 7–18. Levitt, T. (1983) ‘After the sale is over’, Harvard Business Review, Sept–Oct, 87–93. Reichheld, F. (1996) The Loyalty Effect. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Tuominen, Matti, Rajalo, Arto and Møller, Kristian (2004) ‘Market-driving versus market-driven: divergent roles of market orientation in business relationships’, Industrial Marketing Management, 33 (3): 207–17.
For example, Titleist aims to supply all the needs of golfers Vertical-level specialist The firm specialises in one level of the production–distribution cycle. For example, Pickford’s heavy transport firm specialises in moving heavy machinery and abnormal loads. They not only have the specialist vehicles for doing this, they also have knowledge of procedures for alerting police, closing off roads, removing obstacles and so forth Specific-customer specialist The firm specialises in supplying one or two much larger firms with specialist services or products.