By Kursad Turksen (Author)
This accomplished assessment of our present realizing of grownup stem phone kinds and their legislation examines the derivation, characterization, and application of grownup stem cells present in skeletal muscle, dental pulp, prostate, kidney, the attention, internal ear, and different tissues. The authors pay distinct awareness to grownup stem telephone plasticity and their software in basic tissue homeostasis, in addition to their purposes in regenerative medication.
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Hence, PGCs are stem cells that still have the capacity to differentiate in various directions. The next cell type in the spermatogenic cell lineage, the gonocytes, can only be cultured in the presence of Sertoli cells (65); PGCs can be cocultured with other types of somatic cells. Furthermore, it has been shown that, in gonocytes, cytokinesis is not completed, leading to the formation of intercellular bridges between daughter cells (66). As described above, in the adult testes intercellular bridge formation is a sign of differentiation; consequently, many gonocytes may already be destined to differentiate along the spermatogenic lineage.
Only the Apale spermatogonia are able to proliferate and do so once every epithelial cycle. , 48 d in the human). The Adark spermatogonia are quiescent and only are activated after cell loss. When these cells are activated, they become Apale spermatogonia first and then start to proliferate. During repopulation by surviving stem cells, new Adark spermatogonia are set aside again (55). In comparing primate to nonprimate spermatogenesis, it is clear that there is much less proliferative activity of the stem cells in the primate seminiferous epithelium, even by the active stem cells, the Apale.
43. Eglitis, M. , and Mezey, E. (1997). Hematopoietic cells differentiate into both microglia and macroglia in the brains of adult mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 4080–4085. 44. , Chandross, K. , Maki, R. , and McKercher, S. R. (2000). Turning blood into brain: cells bearing neuronal antigens generated in vivo from bone marrow. Science 290, 1779–1782. 45. , Buck, D. , et al. (2000). Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 14,720–14,725. 46. Morrison, S.