Advanced abacus: Japanese theory and practice by Takashi Kojima

By Takashi Kojima

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Add 5 to the 3 on I producing 8 on I (Fig. 158). STEP 3: Subtract 7 from the 107 on ABC, leaving 100 on ABC. As you cannot subtract 49 Advanced Abacus Japanese Theory and Practice, by Takashi Kojima 19 from the 15 on EF, borrow 1 from rod C. Subtracting 19 from 20, add 1 to the 15 on EF. This gives you 16 on EF and 99 on BC (Fig. 159). STEP 4: As you cannot subtract 10 from the 8 on I, borrow 1 from the 16 on EF, and subtracting 10 from 12, add the result 2 to the 8 on I. This gives you 10 on HI and 15 on EF (Fig.

1 ft. 9 in. In Example 3, 1 ft. is separated from 7 yd. by one vacant rod, while 9 in. is separated from 1 ft. by two vacant rods, because during calculations we may have as many as 11 inches and thereby two rods (Fig. 123). , 1 ft. would be set on G and 9 in. on J. But when multiplication and division are also to be performed, it is more convenient to set the units as in the above examples. 43 Advanced Abacus Japanese Theory and Practice, by Takashi Kojima 2. Converting Compound Numbers EXAMPLE 1: Find the value of £37 10 s.

139). STEP 5: Now leaving the 10 d. on KL as it is, you must divide the 515 s. on GHI by 20 to convert it into pounds. Clear CD of its 12, and set the divisor 20 on AB, leaving four vacant rods between it and the 515 on GHI (Fig. 140). STEP 6: Now comparing the 2 on A and the 5 on G, set the quotient 2 on E. Multiplying the 2 on A by this 2 on E, subtract the product 4 from the 5 on G. This leaves 115 on GHI (Fig. 141). 46 Advanced Abacus Japanese Theory and Practice, by Takashi Kojima STEP 7: Next compare the 2 on A and the 11 on GH and set the quotient figure 5 on F.

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